Listen to Your Heart: How to Prepare Yourself for A Career in Cardiology

The road to Cardiology fellowship can be a confusing one. Residency, with its breakneck pace and punishingly long hours, is already a Herculean challenge in and of itself. Simply completing residency is its own feat. Attempting to set yourself up for the next stage in your career in a hyper-competitive specialty adds an entirely new layer of complexity. Trainees on this path towards post-residency training in Cardiology often find themselves asking critical questions: How can I figure out if Cardiology is truly the right field for me? How can I prepare myself for fellowship? What can I do to make myself a competitive applicant?

As you can imagine, the real answer here is that there is no one right way to approach the journey of becoming a cardiologist. Everyone must forge their own path. Still, I would like to share some lessons I have learned from my experiences as a Cardiology-bound resident.

Trade into Cardiology rotations

The only way to find out if you like Cardiology is to ensure that you actually have exposure to it. Sometimes, this means trading into additional Cardiology rotations and increasing your exposure to both cardiologists and potential Cardiology mentors who can talk to you about this career. Only by rotating in Cardiology rotations can you decide if this is a field that you would like to pursue further!

Seek out outpatient Cardiology experiences

Much of the exposure that Internal Medicine residents have to Cardiology during residency comes in the form of inpatient Cardiology rotations (Cardiology wards, Cardiac ICUs). While these are wonderful entry points into the field, they represent only a fraction of the breadth and depth of Cardiology. They may even erroneously lead you to think that most Cardiology happens inside of the hospital (surprise: much of it happens in the outpatient setting). I did not realize this myself until I participated in an ambulatory Cardiology elective. I strongly encourage you to explore the world beyond the CCU or Cardiology wards, so that you can develop a more realistic view of how you will spend the majority of your clinical time later in your career.

But don’t do too much Cardiology!

A common misconception among residents, regardless of their intended career, is that they should only pursue experiences in their field of interest. While this is admirable and might make you feel more prepared for fellowship, you must remember that nothing can truly prepare you for a career in a subspecialty except for fellowship itself. You will have entire years of your academic life set aside to learn how to be a cardiologist. However, after residency, you will no longer have the opportunity to improve upon your weaknesses in other areas of Internal Medicine. One of my mentors once told me that I should use my spare elective time to learn about other subspecialties so that I can become a better and more well-rounded internist. You will have plenty of time to learn about Cardiology during the fellowship. Use this precious extra time to learn about other things that will make you a better doctor, and ultimately, a better cardiologist.

Seek mentors out early

One common mistake that I see people make is that they wait too long connect with potential mentors. Applying to Cardiology fellowship applications is an extremely competitive process.  Thus, it can only help to have mentors in your corner who help you think about your career goals, give you feedback about your fellowship application, help you plan research projects, connect you with other mentors, write letters of recommendation on your behalf, and go to bat for you when the time comes. However, mentor-mentee relationships are not born overnight. You need to dedicate time to building a relationship with mentors that understand you and advocate for you. Allow time to see if you and a mentor hit it off and give your mentor a chance to get to know the real you. The only way to accomplish this is to start early.

Find projects that excite you

It can be really tempting to fall into the trap of taking on as many research projects as possible with the sole purpose of “fluffing” your resume, without regard to a project’s value or quality. Remember that everything you put out into the world is a reflection on you; you should be willing to stand proudly by any work that you produce. Be judicious. Select only those projects in which you are genuinely invested. Don’t just pad your resume with countless meaningless abstracts or manuscripts. Quality will always triumph over quantity.

Set realistic research goals

At the end of the day, your primary job in residency is to be a resident. Sometimes you will be too busy to do research. Sometimes you will be too drained to do research. Sometimes you need to recharge instead of doing yet more work. That’s OK. You cannot do it all. During my first meeting with one of my mentors, we talked about pursuing smaller projects that I could realistically complete during residency rather than trying to take on huge untenable projects. In retrospect, it was incredibly thoughtful and kind of my mentor to be so deliberate. It helped me set more realistic goals about what I could accomplish during residency and it made my research experience more fulfilling. You are a very busy resident. You should accordingly select realistic, sustainable and completable projects.

Join the online Cardiology community!

There is a very active Cardiology community on social networks such as Twitter, talking about the latest high-profile articles, debating new guidelines, and sharing amazing tweetorials or interesting clinical experiences. Social media offers a great opportunity to get to know and make connections with people in the field. I “met” some people on Twitter before I formally met them on the interview trail. It was nice to already have that connection with others in Cardiology. It made me feel from the very beginning that I belonged to a larger Cardiology community. Moreover, it has enhanced both my learning and my excitement about becoming a cardiologist!

Integrity is everything

No matter what you do, put your best foot forward every time. Your reputation really does matter. Though it seems large, Cardiology is also a tightly knit community and people do talk. You will want to develop a reputation as a hardworking, honest, conscientious and reliable person. Actions always speak louder than words. Remember that everything you do will be a reflection on you and your character. When in doubt, ask yourself, can I proudly stand by this decision a month or a year from now? Do the right thing every time. Don’t cut corners. Work hard and be kind. Whether you do good or bad things, people will take notice, and they won’t forget.


“The views, opinions and positions expressed within this blog are those of the author(s) alone and do not represent those of the American Heart Association. The accuracy, completeness and validity of any statements made within this article are not guaranteed. We accept no liability for any errors, omissions or representations. The copyright of this content belongs to the author and any liability with regards to infringement of intellectual property rights remains with them. The Early Career Voice blog is not intended to provide medical advice or treatment. Only your healthcare provider can provide that. The American Heart Association recommends that you consult your healthcare provider regarding your personal health matters. If you think you are having a heart attack, stroke or another emergency, please call 911 immediately.”



So You Want To Apply To Cardiology Fellowship: Tips From the 2020 Application Cycle

The fellowship match process for Cardiology, an increasingly saturated subspecialty with an ever-expanding applicant pool, is extremely competitive. However, the 2020 application cycle proved to be an entirely different beast, with the COVID-19 pandemic and the inability to interview in-person adding layers of complexity to an already confusing process.

Applicants and fellowship program directors alike wrung their hands over the impersonal nature of Zoom interviews (how could you really feel the “vibe” of a place from a Zoom?). Sure, costs decreased because programs were not “wining and dining” applicants and applicants did not have to travel while working full-time. But this democratization of the application process had the adverse effect of leading many applicants to apply to many more programs. Cardiology program directors were overwhelmed by record numbers of applications. Concurrently, applicants were distressed about not receiving interview invitations. It was tough.

As someone that just matched into Cardiology, I would like to offer some unsolicited advice for future fellowship applicants:

DO be judicious in how you build your Cardiology resume

Fellowship applicants are told that they need to join projects or produce manuscripts to “show interest” in Cardiology. While it is important that you explore Cardiology outside of your clinical rotations, it is also important to choose quality over quantity and not over-commit to projects for the sole purpose of buffing your resume. For each possible project or extracurricular activity, be a little bit selfish and ask yourself, what will I get out of this experience? Will you acquire new skills? Will you gain valuable new insight or knowledge? Will you build relationships with great mentors? How will that project fit into your personal narrative or your career interests within Cardiology? Your time is precious. Spend it developing meaningful, in-depth experiences that help you grow as a future cardiologist, not just checking off boxes.

DO give yourself time to make your personal statement about YOU

Writing is hard. I love writing, but I find it uniquely painful and time-consuming. My first drafts are awful; I go through countless edits before landing on a final product that I can tolerate. Writing personal statements is EXTRA hard because we are bad at writing about ourselves and framing our lives and career goals into a short, neat narrative. Instead, we resort to narratives about patients (nice, but says nothing about who YOU are) or generic maxims (ditto). Your personal statement needs to be PERSONAL. It should be about YOU, the journey you took to get to where you are today, and the journey you hope to embark on next. What MUST the reader absolutely know about you by the time they get to the end of the essay? Does a sentence or paragraph reveal anything about you or does it serve a purpose in telling your story? If the answer to either of these questions is “No,” cut that sentence/paragraph out. Be brutal. Lastly, find out who in your life is a good editor and ask them for lots of feedback.

DO be realistic / DON’T take away opportunities from other people

Some applicants are overly confident and do not apply to enough programs. Some apply to way too many, ultimately interviewing at programs in which they are not truly interested, thus shutting out other applicants who would have loved to interview at those programs. How do I know if I am a competitive applicant? How many applications is too many?, you might ask. The only way to know is to make a list of programs to which you’d like to apply and show it to trusted advisors (e.g. your program director). Solicit their honest feedback so that you can make an informed decision about what you need to do to be able to match.

DO research the institutions to which you apply and interview

There are many great Cardiology fellowship programs. There are no “best” programs. The best program for you is one that aligns with your career goals. Different programs have different flavors, strengths, and weaknesses. While interviewing, I realized that some programs were a great fit for me and my specific interests, while other, equally amazing programs were not. The only way to figure out whether a program might be well-tailored to your interests is to research programs before you apply (search online, talk to people that know the program), research them again before your interview, and ask lots of questions during your interview day. If you know before you even apply that a program would not be a good fit for you, why apply there?

DO pre-plan your Zoom interview space

Are you the kind of person that goes with the flow? Or do you get anxious and feel the need to exert control over your surroundings? If you are the former, then great! If you are more high-strung, however, plan your Zoom space out in advance so that there are no unpleasant surprises on Game Day. Where are you going to place the camera? Does your laptop need to be propped up so that the camera is in line with your eyesight? Do you need additional lighting so that others can see you well? Is there too much noise from your surrounding milieu? Does your location have a reliable internet connection? Do you wish to display anything behind you while you are on Zoom? Note that anything you display on screen [e.g. books, artwork] is an open invitation for the interviewer to ask you questions about said item.

DO talk to acquaintances at fellowship programs

Now that interviews are on Zoom, it is as important as ever to talk to current Cardiology fellows and solicit their honest opinions about programs. I found talking one-on-one with people I knew at various fellowship programs to be more helpful in giving me a sense of that program’s “vibe” than just about anything else I heard on interview day. Ask to talk one-on-one with a fellow at every program with which you interview (i.e. someone who attended your medical school or residency, who is from a similar area or who has something in common with you). After these conversations, I felt more confident that I knew what I needed to know in order to make informed decisions about where to place programs on my rank list.

DO think about your “5-10 year plan” and career goals

We all dread the interview question about our “5-10 year plan.” However, rest assured that you will be asked about it at virtually every interview. The fellowship is the final training ground before you launch into your career. Because many people often stay at their institution after fellowship, your fellowship interview in some ways doubles as a faculty interview. The program will view you as a long-term investment and they want to know what you would bring to the department. With that in mind, think about your narrative. How will you “package” yourself? Sure, everyone knows that things might change in the future, but as things stand right now, what niche will you carve out for yourself if you become faculty in the department after fellowship? You should be ready to answer these questions.

DON’T be afraid to preserve your spirit

Interviewing can be fun, but it can also be stressful when paired with an 80-hour-per-week job. Find ways to decompress before, after, or during your interview day. Exercise as needed, spend time with family, debrief with friends, take breaks. For self-care, on Zoom interview days, I would select a 30-60 minute window when I was not on camera and leave my apartment to grab a coffee (yes, I went to the coffee shop in a suit!). It broke up my day, reenergized me, and made me feel like I was at a real in-person interview.

DO be yourself
You should always be professional and courteous to others. However, that does not mean that you need to be a robot! Do not be afraid to let your personality shine. You will have more interesting interactions with others and you will come across as more relatable. More importantly, depending on how the people on the other side of the screen respond, it may help you decide if a program is the right fit for you. Never be anyone other than yourself. You deserve to be at a program that will welcome you for who you are.


“The views, opinions and positions expressed within this blog are those of the author(s) alone and do not represent those of the American Heart Association. The accuracy, completeness and validity of any statements made within this article are not guaranteed. We accept no liability for any errors, omissions or representations. The copyright of this content belongs to the author and any liability with regards to infringement of intellectual property rights remains with them. The Early Career Voice blog is not intended to provide medical advice or treatment. Only your healthcare provider can provide that. The American Heart Association recommends that you consult your healthcare provider regarding your personal health matters. If you think you are having a heart attack, stroke or another emergency, please call 911 immediately.”


Building an academic portfolio during medical training: Part 1 – research outside the box

As a medical trainee in the US, whether you are pursuing an academic career or applying for a fellowship or advanced fellowship, your academic profile is one of the most important currencies you rely on for this endeavor. Academia as a general term refers to 2 main areas: research and education. Many trainees, like myself, start their residency with no or very minimal research experience. It then becomes essential to create a reasonable research portfolio during medical training, which is often not an easy task, especially in clinically demanding specialties. In this series of blogs, I will try to share some ideas and tips that can help you build a competitive research résumé during residency and fellowship. These ideas also apply to medical students, inside or outside the US, who are trying to match their dream US residency program.

The first idea that I would like to talk about is one that I thought was particularly a game changer for me when it comes to research. I like to call this one “research outside the box”, and by the box here, in addition to the abstract meaning of doing things in unorthodox ways, I’m also referring to the literal box that is the walls of your training institution. Residents and fellows are rarely involved in multicenter clinical trials or prospective studies. In fact, the vast majority of research done during medical training is retrospective observational studies. One of the main reasons trainees rely on retrospective studies is the time factor. Prospective studies often take longer to execute, and it becomes difficult to get a tangible product, a conference abstract, or a published manuscript on time for your next fellowship or job application. Therefore, retrospective studies become the more realistic option, and traditionally, these are carried out using institutional databases (i.e. clinical data from patients treated at your own training hospital), which is and will remain one of the most valuable research resources. Then comes the fundamental question – why should I consider doing research in a non-traditional way, or “outside the box”? – For many reasons:

  • Many training hospitals do not have large clinical databases that can produce impactful research projects.
  • You may not find a good research mentor in your training institution.
  • Even with available databases and good research mentors, some retrospective studies may still take long to come to fruition, sometimes longer than you can afford without a back-up plan.
  • Diversifying the ways you do research by pursuing both traditional and non-traditional means, can lead to a marked increase in productivity.
  • Most importantly, collaborating with motivated medical students, residents, and fellows around the country (and sometimes even around the globe), not only enhances your research output but is in itself a great learning and networking opportunity.

The next logical question would be – as a student or a trainee, what type of research can I do outside my institution?

For the same practical reasons that I previously mentioned, I am still referring to retrospective observational research rather than multicenter trials or prospective studies. In that case, to be able to easily collaborate with researchers across different institutions the data has to be publicly available and not protected by privacy laws. There are different types of publicly available data, some are mostly free, such as already published literature, some can be purchased for a fee, such as national and state administrative databases, and others require a research proposal that goes through a grant-like process, such as societal databases. The latter typically requires a higher degree of research expertise and are restricted by application cycles, so I would not recommend them as the first go-to option if you are still taking your very first steps in medical research. Here are some examples of observational research work that can be done collaboratively using these publicly available data sources, without being limited by institutional boundaries:

  • Published medical literature can be used for meta-analyses and systematic reviews. These types of studies commonly address hot topics in medicine or topics with controversy or equipoise. A common scenario where topics are considered “hot” is immediately after the publication of a large clinical trial, particularly if the results are not in line with prior trials on the topic. Meta-analyses are also ideal for examining uncommon side effects or complications of medications or medical procedures.
  • National administrative databases can be used to perform retrospective observational studies, e.g. the National Inpatient Sample (NIS) and the Nationwide Readmissions Database (NRD), which are commonly used in cardiovascular research. They are particularly helpful in researching rare conditions or special populations where getting a large sample size using single-center data is challenging, or to examine trends in diseases or therapies over time. Most of these databases are available for purchase per calendar year (e.g. 2010, 2011, 2012 etc.), meaning that you can buy one or more year worth of data, depending on your budget and your research question.
  • Societal databases can also be used for original outcomes and quality improvement research, e.g. the American Heart Association (AHA) Get With The Guidelines and the American College of Cardiology (ACC) National Cardiovascular Data Registry (NCDR) Although these do not cost money, yet, they mostly require more work including submission of a proposal during an annual or bi-annual application cycle, which is a very competitive process.

These are just examples of what can be done and some common resources that can be used to start with, but in reality, the possibilities and the available resources are endless. Now that we talked about “why” and “what”, the next question is “how” – how to reach potential collaborators? how to build a successful multi-institutional team of young researchers? And what are the challenges to this approach? This will be the topic of my next monthly AHA Early Career Voice blog. So stay tuned..

The views, opinions and positions expressed within this blog are those of the author(s) alone and do not represent those of the American Heart Association. The accuracy, completeness and validity of any statements made within this article are not guaranteed. We accept no liability for any errors, omissions or representations. The copyright of this content belongs to the author and any liability with regards to infringement of intellectual property rights remains with them. The Early Career Voice blog is not intended to provide medical advice or treatment. Only your healthcare provider can provide that. The American Heart Association recommends that you consult your healthcare provider regarding your personal health matters. If you think you are having a heart attack, stroke or another emergency, please call 911 immediately.


Happy July 1: Cardiology Fellowship Begins

Anyone in the medical field knows the significance of July 1.  Don’t get sick in July, they say, because the hospital is full of brand-new residents and fellows.  For me, cardiology fellowship begins right where internal medicine residency left off—at Emory.  At least I know where to park and how to find the bathrooms.

This year we have a tight-knit group of six clinical fellows.  At orientation, we practiced performing echocardiograms on each other, taking turns squinting at gray speckles on a dark screen.  That night, we raised our drinks to say a toast—and to wash away our nerves.  And soon enough, I’m strolling into the hospital sporting my new white coat, which drapes over my shoulders like an oversized tent.  The coat fits awkwardly, in both a physical and figurative sense.

I’m told you don’t even feel like a real cardiologist until you’ve learned to perform heart catheterizations and read echocardiograms.  Ask me again in six months.  For now, I start with general consults, where I’m the cardiology consultant for other physicians in the hospital.  The hardest part about inexperience is the decision-making fatigue—even trivial decisions require excessive mental effort.  To overcome this, the goal is to see as many bread-and-butter cases as possible, to build a sort of muscle memory.

It’s been a wonderful year on this blog, reminiscing the end of residency, chronicling the start of fellowship, and pondering the milestones yet to come.  What gives me comfort at this moment is the supportive culture of my program, where I can always lean on co-fellows and attendings.  I’ll keep this mind as I tackle the next major hurdle—my first overnight call.  Just thinking about it gives me palpitations.