With the dawn of the Islamic lunar month of Ramadan, many Muslims around the world begin observing an absolute fast from dawn to dusk, abstaining from food, drink, and oral medications. The fast naturally also entails a change in lifestyle, sleeping patterns, and adjustments of salt and fluid intake, all of which have implications for the cardiac patient. Furthermore, as they are generally known to be on multiple medications, depending on the number of hours of fasting, there might be a need for adjusting drugs, doses, and timings.
Cardiac patients span across a wide range of diseases and differ in terms of symptoms, acuity, and hemodynamic stability. As such, while it might be entirely appropriate for stable patients to observe the fast, with adjustments to lifestyle, others who are less so may need to be advised against fasting, particularly as the sick are exempted. There is a paucity of data on best practices for fasting among cardiac patients. This blog provides a brief summary of the available data, some general suggestions, and links to useful resources pertinent to patients with common cardiac conditions on fasting during Ramadan.
Stable Coronary artery disease: Few observational studies suggest that with good monitoring, fasting may be safe in patients with stable treated coronary artery disease (CAD), particularly with normal left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), provided they adhere to medications.1-3
In fact, among stable patients with a previous history of cardiovascular disease (CVD), fasting during Ramadan has been shown to significantly improve 10-year Framingham cardiac risk score, as well as cardiovascular risk factors such as lipid profile, body mass index (BMI), and systolic blood pressure.4
Acute myocardial infarction (MI): Unlike stable CAD, however, in patients with a recent acute MI or immediate post-cardiac surgery, abstinence from fasting following the 6-week period of either of these events has been advised.5,6
Heart failure (HF): A prospective observational study examining the effect of Ramadan fasting on patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction (< 40%), noted that as many as 92% of the patients that fasted had no changes or improved symptoms, while symptoms worsened in a minority of patients (8%).7 Furthermore, those with worsening symptoms were significantly less likely to have adhered to fluid and salt restrictions, and heart failure medications (p<0.0001). This clearly underscores the need for ensuring compliance with appropriately timed medications, particularly diuretics, in order to prevent acute decompensation of HF.
The British Islamic Medical Association has a structured guideline of recommendations based on risk for fasting among patients with heart failure:6
- HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF), and HF with reduced EF (up to an LV EF 35%) are at low/moderate risk for fasting (i.e. decision not to fast at the discretion of medical opinion and patient’s ability).6
- Severe, but not advanced, heart failure is at high risk for fasting and should be advised not to fast. This would include patients on Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) .6
- Patients with advanced heart failure (including those on Left Ventricular Assist Devices), decompensated HF requiring large doses of diuretics 5, and those with severe pulmonary hypertension, are deemed very high risk, and MUST be advised against fasting.6
Hypertension: Fasting during Ramadan is generally well-tolerated in patients with well-controlled essential hypertension on the continuation of previous drug treatment 5,8, supported by ambulatory BP measurement (ABPM) data in observational studies.9-10. However, patients with resistant hypertension should be advised not to fast until their blood pressure is reasonably controlled.5 The key to blood pressure maintenance during Ramadan lies in compliance with medications, and non-pharmacological measures such as a low-salt diet.11. In those with fluctuating BP, home blood pressure monitoring with medication adjustment may be a feasible option.
Adjustment of medications: Cardiac medications are vital, and non-compliance has the potential to be life-threatening. Patients should be advised on adherence to medication, and efforts be made to ensure compliance, by adjusting dose and timings, or switching to a class of medication that might be a more compliant alternative.8 For drugs with two daily doses, it’s advisable to take them with as wide a gap as possible during non-fasting hours.8 In case a medication requires more than twice daily dosing, an adjustment that allows for better compliance may be preferred.
Antihypertensive drugs: For twice-daily medication, dose timings may need to be changed to coincide with the early morning meal (Suhoor) and the breaking-of-fast meal (Iftar).8 A switch to a once-daily medication with long-acting preparations may be preferred.8,11
Diuretics: Diuretics are particularly unpopular among patients who either stop or reduce its doses during Ramadan. Diuretics may also worsen fasting-associated dehydration (especially in hot weather), with non-compliance resulting in uncontrolled hypertension and decompensation of heart failure. If the indication is hypertension, switching to a suitable alternative is reasonable.6 However, strict compliance with diuretics must be advised among those with HF especially those with reduced EF. They may also be prescribed during the non-fasting period of the day (i.e. early evening), where there is minimal risk of associated dehydration.5 Alternatively, patients may consider taking it at dawn (suhoor) to prevent frequent micturition and disturbed night sleep.6
Anticoagulants: Compliance must be ensured for those requiring therapeutic anticoagulation, irrespective of indication, with patients being advised of the risks of stroke or systemic embolism in case of non-adherence.12,13 Some older small-scale observational studies have reported that Ramadan fasting does not appear to adversely influence the efficacy or safety of warfarin.14, 15 However, more recent data suggest that Ramadan fasting does in fact influence the therapeutic effect of warfarin in terms of lowered time spent in therapeutic range (TTR) with a reduced proportion of patients achieving therapeutic PT-INR and consequent increased risk of poor anticoagulation control.16, 17 As such, closer monitoring or dosage adjustments are necessary for patients maintained at the higher end of INR target ranges.16 This should extend to the post-Ramadan period, particularly in the elderly as they are more prone to over-anticoagulation and consequently the risk of bleeding.17, 18 ).
There is no randomized evidence on dosing adjustments for Novel oral anticoagulants (NOACs) with fasting during Ramadan.12 However, clinical practice suggests that drugs are taken once or twice daily, such as NOACs, do not require an adjustment.12 . Among patients on twice-daily NOACs such as apixaban, a switch to once-daily rivaroxaban might be feasible.6 Those taking rivaroxaban should be asked to take the NOAC with food even during the month of Ramadan.12
Antiplatelet medications: Patients must be strictly advised to continue dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT), especially in case of a recent MI or percutaneous coronary stent implantation, with clear information on the adverse outcomes of non-compliance such as acute stent thrombosis, MI, and even death.6 In terms of P2Y12 inhibitors, given pharmacokinetics of ticagrelor, if twice-daily dosing proves challenging, a switch to single-dose P2Y12 inhibitors such as clopidogrel or prasugrel (if appropriate), may be considered.6
Ramadan, COVID-19, and vaccine uptake: With the rollout of vaccines currently underway globally, there are concerns about vaccine hesitancy, based on whether the intramuscular injection invalidates the fast, any possible side-effects, and if indeed the fast may have to be broken.19 Scholars have clarified that vaccination does NOT invalidate the fast and such clarifications must be widely disseminated among both cardiac patients and the general public in order to maximize vaccine uptake.20
The bottom line to good heart health during Ramadan remains in good communication and preemptive discussions. Although the current climate of the COVID-19 pandemic poses challenges to in-patient visits and physical examinations, virtual consultations must be leveraged to optimize cardiac care during the month of fasting. Some useful resources have been linked in the references. This blog is by no means exhaustive, and decisions regarding individual patients’ suitability for fasting and medication adjustments must be made following individualized discussions with their respective physicians, particularly as the duration of the fast varies in different geographical locations and as such, not all data derived from studies can be extrapolated generically.
- Salim I, Al Suwaidi J, Ghadban W, et al. Impact of religious Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular disease: a systematic review of the literature. Curr Med Res Opin. 2013;29(4):343-54.
- Al Suwaidi J, Zubaid M, Al-Mahmeed WA, et al. Impact of fasting in Ramadan in patients with cardiac disease. Saudi Med J. 2005;26(10):1579-83
- Mousavi M, Mirkarimi S, Rahmani, Get al. Ramadan fast in patients with coronary artery disease. Iran Red Crescent Med J. 2014;16:e7887.
- Nematy M, Alinezhad-Namaghi M, Rashed MM, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on cardiovascular risk factors: a prospective observational study. Nutr J. 2012;11:69.
- Chamsi-Pasha H, Ahmed WH, Al-Shaibi KF. The cardiac patient during Ramadan and Hajj. J Saudi Heart Assoc. 2014;26(4):212-5.
- Ramadan Rapid Review & Recommendations – British Islamic Medical Association. Available at: https://britishima.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/05/Ramadan-Rapid-Review-Recommendations-v1.2.pdf (Accessed on 10th April 2021)
- Abazid RM, Khalaf HH, Sakr HI, et al. Effects of Ramadan fasting on the symptoms of chronic heart failure. Saudi Med J. 2018;39(4):395-400.
- Aadil N, Houti IE, Moussamih S. Drug intake during Ramadan. BMJ. 2004;329(7469):778-82.
- Perk G, Ghanem J, Aamar S, Ben-Ishay D, Bursztyn M. The effect of the fast of Ramadan on ambulatory blood pressure in treated hypertensives. J Hum Hypertens. 2001;15(10):723-5.
- Habbal R, Azzouzi L, Adnan K, et al. Variations tensionnelles au cours du mois de Ramadan [Variations of blood pressure during the month of Ramadan]. Arch Mal Coeur Vaiss. 1998;91(8):995-8.
- Chamsi-Pasha M, Chamsi-Pasha H. The cardiac patient in Ramadan. Avicenna J Med. 2016 ;6(2):33-8.
- Hersi AS, Alhebaishi YS, Hamoui O, et al. Practical perspectives on the use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants for stroke prevention in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation: A view from the Middle East and North Africa. J Saudi Heart Assoc. 2018;30(2):122-139.
- Batarfi A, Alenezi H, Alshehri A, et al. Patient-guided modifications of oral anticoagulant drug intake during Ramadan fasting: a multicenter cross-sectional study. J Thromb Thrombolysis. 2021;51(2):485-493.
- Saour JN, Sieck J, Khan M, et al. Does Ramadan fasting complicate anticoagulation therapy?. Ann Saudi Med 1989; 9: 538– 40.
- Chamsi‐Pasha H, Ahmed WH. The effect of fasting in Ramadan on patients with heart disease. Saudi Med J 2004; 25: 47– 51.
- Lai Y, Cheen M, Lim S, et al. The effects of fasting in Muslim patients taking warfarin. J Thromb Haemost 2014; 12: 349– 54
- Sridharan K, Al Banna R, Qader AM, et al. Does fasting during Ramadan influence the therapeutic effect of warfarin? J Clin Pharm Ther. 2021 Feb;46(1):86-92.
- Awiwi MO, Yagli ZA, Elbir F, et al. The effects of Ramadan fasting on patients with prosthetic heart valve taking warfarin for anticoagulation. J Saudi Heart Assoc. 2017;29(1):1-6.
- Ali SN, Hanif W, Patel K, Khunti K; South Asian Health Foundation, UK. Ramadan and COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy-a call for action. Lancet. 2021:S0140-6736(21)00779-0.
- Sharifain H. COVID-19 vaccine does not invalid the fast during Ramadan: Abdul Rehman Al Sudais. Available at: https://www.haramainsharifain.com/2021/03/covid-19-vaccine-does-not-invalid-fast.html. (Accessed on: April 12 2021)
Aaysha Cader, MD, MRCP is an Assistant Professor of Cardiology at Ibrahim Cardiac Hospital & Research Institute, Dhaka, and is currently pursuing a part-time MSc in Clinical trials at the University of Oxford. She has a special interest in interventional cardiology, acute coronary syndromes, and heart disease in women. She is a World Heart Federation Emerging Leader and a co-founder of the Global Women in Cardiology (WIC) – Early Career collaboration. You can follow her on twitter: @aayshacader