Race and In-Hospital Stroke Care

Intracerebral haemorrhage [ICH] accounts for ~15% of all strokes with an estimated 40% mortality at one month, with higher rates of occurrence among Black patients1. Differences have been observed in the burden of ICH by race, with a higher incidence among Black, Asian and Hispanic compared to White patients2,3.

The number of hospital admissions for ICH in the United States escalated from 150,000 in early 1990s to 175,000 in early 2000s2. Studies have reported racial differences in the quality and process of care among patients hospitalized with ICH4. A recent paper by Cruz-Flores found racial differences in In-hospital utilization of care including lifesaving and life-sustaining therapies, palliative care, do not resuscitate status and in-hospital mortality5.

Two recent studies showed that compared to whites, minority patients were more often younger with higher rates of medical comorbidities, longer length of stay and lower rates of do not resuscitate orders and in-hospital mortality2,5. Rates of hospital admissions have been also shown to be higher among minority men compared to women, however this might be a mere reflection of females not having equal access to care5.

A report on stroke performance measures by Xian in 2014 revealed smoking cessation counselling was less frequently completed among minority patients2. Counseling on modifiable risk factors is a key measure to reduce risk of stroke, recurrent stroke and coronary heart disease. In addition, Xian et al reported that Black patients were less likely than White patients to have a door to CT time of ≤ 25 minutes2. Rapid neuroimaging is one of the key class I recommendations of the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association for ICH patients2,6. Subsequent management is essentially dependent on identification of stroke subtype by neuroimaging. Further research is needed to identify mechanisms and causes of disparities in outcomes after stroke, ICH in particular, among minority patients.



  1. Kleindorfer D, Khoury J, Moomaw CJ, Alwell K, Woo D, Flaherty ML, Khatri P, Adeoye O, Ferioli S, Broderick JP, Kissela BM. Stroke incidence is decreasing in whites, but not in blacks: a population-based estimate of temporal trends in stroke incidence from the Greater Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky stroke study. Stroke; a journal of cerebral circulation. 2010 Jul;41(7):1326.
  2. Xian Y, Holloway RG, Smith EE, et al. Racial/ethnic differences in process of care and outcomes among patients hospitalized with intracerebral hemorrhage. Stroke 2014; 45: 3243–3250.
  3. Woo D, Rosand J, Kidwell C, et al. The ethnic/racial variations of intracerebral hemorrhage (ERICH) study protocol. Stroke 2013; 44: e120–e125.
  4. Cruz-Flores S, Rabinstein A, Biller J, et al. Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke care: the American experience: a statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke 2011; 42: 2091–2116.
  5. Cruz-Flores, Salvador, Gustavo J. Rodriguez, Mohammad Rauf A. Chaudhry, Ihtesham A. Qureshi, Mohtashim A. Qureshi, Paisith Piriyawat, Anantha R. Vellipuram, Rakesh Khatri, Darine Kassar, and Alberto Maud. “Racial/ethnic disparities in hospital utilization in intracerebral hemorrhage.” International Journal of Stroke (2019): 1747493019835335.
  6. Morgenstern LB, Hemphill JC 3rd, Anderson C, Becker K, Broderick JP, Connolly ES Jr, et al; American Heart Association Stroke Council and Council on Cardiovascular Nursing. Guidelines for the management of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage: a guideline for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke. 2010; 41:2108–2129.