COVID-19; Patients with Congenital Heart Disease (CHD)

This week, the ACHA (American Congenital Heart Association) hosted a webinar in regards to Coronavirus aka SARS-CoV-2, and the illness it causes, COVID-19, 3,000 attended (view the recording here.) CHD patients, parents of CHD patients and CHD providers had the same question, how does this virus affect this special population? Unfortunately, the data is lacking on coronavirus those with CHD and there is a lot we don’t know.

A recent study1 in China looked at 2143 pediatric patients with COVID-19, the majority (94.1%) were asymptomatic or mild, more severe cases, were seen in infants (<1 year old) than older children, and there was only one death. This study lacks details, such as what other medical conditions they may have. Severe cases were 5.9% compared to 18.5% in adult population studies. Although reassuring for the general pediatric population, we still don’t know how this applies to pediatric patients in the United States and those with CHD.

What we do know.

There is a trend toward overgeneralization of “heart disease,” particularly in the media. It has been noted that the COVID-19 affects older adults and those with “heart disease,” meaning cardiovascular disease(CVD), such as coronary artery disease and hypertension, more severely.2 This does not include Congenital Heart Disease.

The virus may also cause myocardial injury, with reports of myocarditis and arrhythmias in those with severe cases.2-4 The effect is thought to be related to Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2(ACE2), which, in animal studies, has a role in the cardiovascular, and immune system and has been identified as a functional receptor for coronaviruses.2,3

Many patients with CVD and CHD take a medication known as ACE inhibitors or an Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs). The use of these medications is common in both populations, but for different indications, as their “heart disease” is not the same. There are trials assessing the use of these medications and effect on COVID19 in adults, and varying theories on whether they are protective or not, with that said, the HFSA/ACC/AHA currently recommends continuing these medications as prescribed.5

Are patients with CHD considered high risk?

The answer is we don’t know. With a wide range of congenital heart disease, from repaired/“normal” hearts, to those with altered blood flow, lung abnormalities, and arrhythmias. As  mentioned, the CDC places those with “heart disease,” meaning those with CVD, and older adults, at high risk of severe illness,6 this does not include CHD, however, CHD patients aren’t immune to CVD and if a patient has CVD and also CHD they are considered high risk.

With data lacking in many populations, it is important for those considered at high risk for other viruses, like influenza, such as CHD, asthma and those who are immunocompromised, to take appropriate precautions. It is better to be over prepared and over cautious.

Follow up and Communication.

CHD patients should keep in close contact with their medical team and stay updated with recommendations of their team and the CDC (found in detail here), like social distancing, good hand hygiene and staying home if you are sick. Concerning symptoms that require further evaluation include shortness of breath (or fast breathing in infants), chest pain, and palpitations.

 As far as visiting your doctor, you will likely be asked to either re-schedule or have a telephone visit. You can ask your medical team about this option and even anticipate it for the next few months. Elective procedures, catheterizations and imaging will likely be delayed. If one good thing comes out of this pandemic, it may be better options and availability for telemedicine in the future.

Keep your Mind Healthy

Use this time to support your mental health— pay attention to the news and social media, but set timers so you don’t over-saturate yourself. Find the book you’ve had on your shelves that you’ve been too busy for and set aside time every day to read, call or FaceTime friends, and maybe even fill up your bathtub and relax!

Meditation and exercise are also great options, and many apps offer free trials. Calm and Headspace have some free mediation content and free trials. Peloton & DailyBurn offer free day trials with a variety of classes(Tip: If you do choose a free trial, be sure to set an alarm on your calendar before the free trial is over so you can choose if it’s worth continuing for a fee or not.) There are also options to support your local gyms and studies virtually with on demand classes, just check out their websites and/or Instagram.

There is so much unknown, which causes us to worry and discomfort, but we are learning more each day. Stay informed, stay safe, wash your hands and try to keep your mental health in check.

For more on coronavirus and heart health, read Noora Aljerhi’s blog (3/9/2020) on the early career voice.

  1. Dong, Yuanyuan, et al. “Epidemiological Characteristics of 2143 Pediatric Patients with 2019 Coronavirus Disease in China.” Pediatrics, 2020, doi:10.1542/peds.2020-0702.
  2. Hui, Hui, et al. “Clinical and Radiographic Features of Cardiac Injury in Patients with 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia.” 2020, doi:10.1101/2020.02.24.20027052.
  3. Zheng, Ying-Ying, et al. “COVID-19 and the Cardiovascular System.” Nature News, Nature Publishing Group, 5 Mar. 2020,
  4. Hu, Hongde, et al. “Coronavirus Fulminant Myocarditis Saved with Glucocorticoid and Human Immunoglobulin.” European Heart Journal, 2020, doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa190.HFS/ACC/AHA statement
  5. “HFSA/ACC/AHA Statement Addresses Concerns Re: Using RAAS Antagonists in COVID-19.” American College of Cardiology, 17 Mar. 2020,
  6. “If You Are at Higher Risk.” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 12 Mar. 2020,

“The views, opinions and positions expressed within this blog are those of the author(s) alone and do not represent those of the American Heart Association. The accuracy, completeness and validity of any statements made within this article are not guaranteed. We accept no liability for any errors, omissions or representations. The copyright of this content belongs to the author and any liability with regards to infringement of intellectual property rights remains with them. The Early Career Voice blog is not intended to provide medical advice or treatment. Only your healthcare provider can provide that. The American Heart Association recommends that you consult your healthcare provider regarding your personal health matters. If you think you are having a heart attack, stroke or another emergency, please call 911 immediately.”